NOTES ON THE NEW TESTAMENT
BOOK BY BOOK
The entire Holy Bible is summarized with easy to read review notes and key points, useful for everyone and a resource for Bible study. Summary and key points of the Old and New Testament. - Book-by-Book.
The New Testament of the Bible was written around 70 to 110 A.D. The first four books of the New Testament (called the “Gospels”) tell the story of Jesus Christ - each different in its presentation and style of the writer.
It will not do to study the Bible only when we feel like it or have leisure time. We must have fixed principles and habits in this matter, if we are to study the Bible for the greatest profit. Nothing that we do will be more important than our Bible study, and it cannot give way to other less important things. What regularity in eating is to physical life, regularity in Bible study is to spiritual life. Fix upon some time, even if it is no more than fifteen minutes to start with, and hold to it until you are ready to set a longer period.
The male lineage of Jesus Christ is given, from Abraham to King David to Joseph. Jesus means "savior," and Christ means "Messiah." The name, Immanuel, means "God with us," is also given to Jesus Christ. Jesus' birth to Mary was after her conception from the Holy Spirit (Matthew 1:20) -- VIRGIN BIRTH. The story is told (Matthew 1) of Jesus being born in Bethlehem and being visited by wise men (Magi) from the east that brought presents of gold, incense, and myrrh. Mary, Joseph, and the Baby Jesus went to Egypt to escape from King Herod's plot to kill the baby. After Herod's death, the family moved to Galilee and lived in Nazareth.
The story is told of John the Baptist describing of how he baptized people in the Jordan River while Another will "...baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire." (Matthew 3:11) Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was tempted in the wilderness by Satan -- asked to turn stones into loaves, jump off the Temple roof, or to accept the world rule from Satan, all of which Jesus did not do. The gruesome death of John the Baptist, where his head was delivered on a tray for Herodias' daughter, was described. (Matthew 14:1-12)
Jesus selected his twelve disciples, who were:
- Simon (also called Peter) -- commercial fishermen
- Andrew (Peter's brother) -- commercial fisherman
- James (son of Zebedee) -- commercial fisherman
- John (son of Zebedee) -- commercial fisherman
- Matthew -- tax collector
- James (son of Alphaeus)
- Simon -- of the Zealot political party, wanting to overthrow the Romans
- Judas Iscariot -- who betrayed Jesus
Jesus preached at Capernaum. He often spoke of the Kingdom of Heaven, with stories about it:
1. From the Sermon on the Mount, given by Jesus to His disciples -- The Beatitudes (list of rewards of the Kingdom of Heaven)-- main Christian ethic)
"Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. o Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. o Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. o Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. o Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. o Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for My sake. o Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so
persecuted they the prophets which were before you." (Matthew 5:3-12, from King James’ Version-- Sermon on the Mount)
- "Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:19 -- Sermon on the Mount)
- "I say to you that many will come from the east and the west (i.e. Gentiles), and will take their places at the feast with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. But the subjects of the kingdom (i.e. Hebrews) will be thrown outside, into the darkness ..." (Matthew 8:11-12)
- "Whoever acknowledges Me before men, I will also acknowledge him before My Father in heaven. But whoever disowns Me before men, I will disown him before My father in heaven." (Matthew 10:32-33)
- "But I tell you that men will have to give account on the day of judgment for every careless word they have spoken." (Matthew 12:36).
- "...The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and planted in his field. Though it is the smallest of all your seeds, yet when it grows, it is the largest of garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and perch in its branches." (Matthew 13:31,32)
- ".. .the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. When it was full, the fishermen pulled it up on the shore. Then they sat down and collected the good fish in baskets, but threw the bad away. This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." (Matthew 13:47-51).
- "...unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Therefore, whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven." (Matthew 18:3-4)
- "Let the little children come to Me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these." (Matthew 19:14)
- "...it is hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven...it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God...but with God all things are possible." (Matthew 19:23-26)
Jesus had many statements regarding how to live; some important ones were:
- "But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart." (Matthew 5:28 -- Sermon on the Mount)
- "But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for marital unfaithfulness, causes her to become an adulteress, and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery." (Matthew 5:32 -- Sermon on the Mount; also in Matthew 19:9)
- "But I tell you: Do not swear at all..." (Matthew 5:34 -- Sermon on the Mount)
- "But I tell you: Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also." (Matthew 5:39 -- Sermon on the Mount)
- "But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you ..." (Matthew 5:44 -- Sermon on the Mount)
- "Be careful not to do your 'acts of righteousness' before men, to be seen by them. If you do, you will have no reward from your Father in heaven." (Matthew 6:1)
- "And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by men...But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you." (Matthew 6:5-6)
- The Lord’s Prayer(from King James’ Version)
"After this manner, therefore, pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen." (Matthew 6:9-13)
- "No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and money.
Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or drink..." (Matthew 6:24-25)
- "Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own." (Matthew 6:34).
- "Do not judge, or you too will be judged...Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother's eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?" (Matthew 7:1,3)
- "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth, and to him that knocketh it shall be opened." (Matthew 7:7-8, from King James’ Version)
- "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." (Matthew 7:12)
- To Peter, who asked, "Lord, how many times shall I forgive ...seven times?" Jesus said, "...not seven times, but seventy times seven." (Matthew 18:21-22).
- "And do not call anyone on earth 'father,' for you have one Father, and He is in heaven." (Matthew 23:9)
- "For whoever exalts himself (i.e., thinks of himself as great) will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted (i.e., made great)." (Matthew 23:12)
- "...the more important matters of the law -- justice, mercy, and faithfulness..." (Matthew 23:23
- Jesus had many story-illustrations for people of his time. Summaries include:
"Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock...it did not fall...But everyone who hears these words of Mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on sand...it fell..." (Matthew 7:24-26)
Farmer Sowing Grains: The farmer sows grains, some eaten by birds, some on rocky soil with little roots, some choked out by thorns, some falling on good soil to produce a great crop. This was explained (Matthew 13:18-23), whereby the good ground represents a man who understands His message and brings others into the Kingdom.
King with Debtor: King forgave a man a large debt. Then, the man refused to forgive a small debt owed to him. So the king was angry and punished the man. Likewise, God would do the same to such a man. (Matthew 18:23-34)
Last First, First Last: A man paid a flat rate for all employees, some working a full day, some for only the last hours. Thus, all got the same reward because of the man's kindness. Likewise, God would allow the last to be first and the first to be last -- or, everyone gets the same reward if accepted into the Kingdom of Heaven. (Matthew 20:1-16)
King's Wedding Dinner: The King's invited guests did not come, so the King then invited everyone into the dinner. Many came but one did not wear the robe given to him, so that one was thrown out. Here (Matthew 22:1-14), Jesus says that all are invited to the Kingdom of Heaven, but "For many are invited, but few are chosen."
Cup Cleaning: To the Pharisees, Jesus said, "...First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean." Here (Matthew 23:25-26) Jesus is speaking against hypocrisy.
Ten Bridesmaids: Five bridesmaids were prepared and had oil-filled lamps; five bridesmaids were not prepared -- with empty lamps. Those that were not prepared were not allowed to enter with the bridegroom. This (Matthew 25:1-12), regarding the Kingdom of Heaven, says, "Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour." (Matthew 25:13)
Investment: Three servants were given different amounts of money to invest for their master; two doubled the money, and one only buried the money for safekeeping. The story says, "For everyone who has will be given more, and he will have an abundance..." (Matthew 25:14-30) The one who buried the money gained nothing and was thrown out.
Jesus performed many healings and miracles. Summaries include:
- Leper -- healed (Matthew 8:2-4)
- Servant boy of a Roman army captain, paralyzed -- Gentile healed (Matthew 8:5-13)
- Peter's mother-in-law, high fever -- healed (Matthew 8:14-15)
- Demon-possessed people -- demons fled; sick healed (Matthew 8:16)
- Demon-possessed men -- demons sent into pigs that were drowned (Matthew 8:28-32)
- Paralyzed boy -- jumped up, cured (Matthew 9:2-7)
- Rabbi's dead daughter -- became all right (Matthew 9:18-26)
- Two blind men -- sight returned (Matthew 9:27-31)
- The Demon-possessed man couldn't speak -- speech returned, demon left (Matthew 9:32-33)
- Feeding the 5000: A large crowd had gathered in the wilderness with no food, so Jesus multiplied five loaves of bread and two fish so that all ate well and had 12 basketfuls left over. (Matthew 14:14-21)
- Walking on Water: Disciples were in trouble on the lake with rough seas, so Jesus walked on the water out to them. Peter walked on the water but began to sink, so Jesus rescued him. The wind/seas calmed. (Matthew 14:23-33)
- Canaanite woman (Gentile) -- requested daughter be helped from demons; Jesus granted her request because of her humility. (Matthew 15:22-28)
- Feeding the 4000: At the Sea of Galilee, many people had gathered with no food, so Jesus multiplied seven loaves of bread and a few small fish, such that all ate well with 7 basketfuls left over. (Matthew 15:32-38)
- Two blind men -- sight returned (Matthew 20:30-34)
Jesus had many other main points, some including:
- "All things have been committed to Me by My Father. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him" (Matthew 11:27)
- "For whoever does the will of My Father in heaven is My brother and sister and mother." (Matthew 12:50).
- To Simon Peter, whose name Peter meant "rock," Jesus said, "...you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven..." (Matthew 16:18)
- To His disciples, Jesus said, "If anyone would come after Me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow Me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for Me will find it." (Matthew 16:24-25)
- "... if you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can say to this mountain, 'Move from here to there' and it will move. Nothing will be impossible for you." (Matthew 17:20-21)
- "...the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28)
- "For I was hungry and you gave Me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave Me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited Me in, I needed clothes and you clothed Me, I was sick and you looked after Me ...whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of Mine, you did for Me ...whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for Me..." (Matthew 25:35-45)
A woman poured very expensive perfume onto Jesus' head and was criticized by Jesus' disciples. Jesus said she would always be remembered for her deed, for Jesus had only a short time left -- so the woman recognized Jesus' great value. (Matthew 26:6-13)
When asked why He dealt with sinners and tax collectors (people that were generally considered to be shunned), Jesus said, "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick." (Matthew 9:12). Jesus said that all sins can be forgiven except one -- blasphemy (dishonoring; cursing) against the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:31,32). Jesus had disagreements with the Pharisees (religious party with strict Jewish beliefs based on Moses' laws -- exclusive and self-righteous people) and Sadducees (a party who followed the Roman rule, had political power and the priesthood, and did not believe in the resurrection of the dead):
Pharisees question to Jesus: Is it legal to work by healing on the Sabbath day? Jesus answer: It is right to do good on the Sabbath day. (Matthew 12:12)
- Pharisees -- He casts out demons because he is Satan. (accusing Jesus of being Satan)
Jesus -- A divided kingdom will fall...If Satan is casting out himself, he is destroying his own kingdom. (Matthew 12:25,26)
- Pharisees -- question Jesus for not using the ritual hand washing custom. Jesus -- From the heart (or mind) come evil thoughts: what is unclean is not what goes into your mouth but what comes out of it -- what you think or say. (Matthew 15:1-20)
- Pharisees -- question to Jesus: Is it right to pay Roman taxes? Jesus -- "...Render therefore under Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's." (Matthew 22:21, from King James’ Version)
- Sadducees -- question about a woman who successively married seven brothers and then died -- in the resurrection, whose wife would she be? Jesus -- There is no marriage, only angels in heaven. (Matthew 22:23-30)
- Sadducees -- question about resurrection. Jesus -- God said, "I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob," and this says that these are living people -- thus showing that they are resurrected. (Matthew 22:31-32)
- Pharisees -- question Jesus as what is the most important commandment. Jesus -- "Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.'" (Matthew 22:37-39)
Jesus in Jerusalem:
Jesus went to Jerusalem "gentle and riding on a donkey" (Matthew 21:5) Jesus went into the Temple and drove out the merchants and money-changers, angering Jewish leaders. Judas Iscariot agreed to direct the chief priests to Jesus for payment of 30 silver coins. Jesus ate a Last Supper with the twelve disciples, where Jesus pointed out Judas (Matthew 26:25) as the person who would betray Him. Jesus took bread, and said, "Take and eat; this is My body." And, a cup of wine, saying, "...This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins." (Matthew 26:26-28). Jesus prayed, "...My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from Me. Yet not as I will, but as You will." (Matthew 26:39) Jesus told Simon Peter that Peter would deny Jesus three times "before the rooster crows," and, when Jesus was pointed out by Judas and taken away, Peter denied that he knew Jesus three times before the morning rooster crowing. To the high priest, Jesus said that He was the Messiah (Matthew 26:64). Judas regretted turning Jesus over to the chief priests, and he hanged himself.
The Crucifixion of Jesus (Matthew 27): Jesus was given to Pilate, the Roman governor, for sentencing. Pilate offered to release either Jesus or a criminal named Barabbas. The crowd, persuaded by the priests, said to release Barabbas and to crucify Jesus. Pilate washed his hands, claiming to be innocent of Jesus' blood, and then ordered Jesus to be crucified. The Roman soldiers put a crown of thorns on His head, mocked Him, took Him to Golgotha (meaning "The Place of the Skull") to be put on a cross with a sign over His head, reading "THIS IS JESUS,THE KING OF THE JEWS." For three hours, darkness occurred: then Jesus said the words "Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabachthani?," meaning "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?" Jesus gave up His Spirit and died. Jesus was wrapped in a clean linen cloth and placed in a new tomb that had been cut out of the rock (given by a rich man named Joseph). A big stone was rolled in front of the entrance. The tomb was sealed and guarded.
The Resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 28): On Sunday morning, Mary Magdalene and another Mary went to the tomb and saw an angel of the Lord, who told them that Jesus was not there, that He had risen from the dead, and would meet His disciples in Galilee. Jesus told His disciples to "...go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and ... I am with you always, to the very end of the age." (Matthew 28:1920).
With implications for the future yet to come, Jesus answered his disciples concerning the events that would signal the "end of the age" (or the world):
- "And the gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world, as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come." (Matthew 24:14)
- "For then there will be great distress, unequaled from the beginning of the world until now -- and never to be equaled again." (Matthew 24:21)
- "Immediately after the distress of those days 'the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.'" (Matthew 24:29)
- "And He will send His angels...and they will gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other." (Matthew 24:31)
- "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will never pass away." (Matthew 24:35)
- "Therefore, keep watch, because you do not know on what day your Lord will come." (Matthew 24:42)
The story of Jesus Christ begins with the birth of the "messenger," John the Baptist, who lived in the wilderness, teaching that everyone should be baptized to publicly show their decision to change their lives. John the Baptist said that "I baptize you with water, but He (referring to Jesus) will baptize you with the Holy Spirit." (Mark 1:8) Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River, when the Spirit descended on Jesus "like a dove" and heaven responded, "...You are My Son who I love; with you I am well pleased." (Mark 1:11) After Jesus' baptism, he was tempted by Satan in the desert, then going to Galilee to preach the "good news." Jesus' healing the sick and destroying demons from the demon-possessed are presented as He went throughout Galilee, with the news spreading far and wide, and with large numbers of people coming to see Him. After King Herod had killed John the Baptist (with his head brought to Herodias' daughter on a tray), he thought that Jesus was John the Baptist raised from the dead. (Mark 6:14-29)
Capernaum Healing (Mark 2:1-12):
This story is of a paralyzed man being lowered through the roof on a stretcher, with Jesus' healing him, saying "...Son, your sins are forgiven!" (Mark 2:5) This upset many Jewish religious leaders, who thought of this as "blaspheming" (dishonoring God).
Asked why He would eat with and associate with people that were not well thought of (tax collectors and sinners), Jesus said, "...It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners." (Mark 2:17)
Jesus spoke of the Kingdom of God:
- "It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:31-32)
Jesus had many statements regarding how to live; some important ones were:
- Answering the question of what is the most important commandment, Jesus said, "The most important one ...is this: 'Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.'" (Mark
- The second most important commandment: "...'Love your neighbor as yourself.'" (Mark 12:31)
Jesus had many story-illustrations (parables -- simple stories illustrating a moral or religious lesson) for people of his time.
Leased Vineyard (Mark 12:1-12): A man's vineyard was leased to tenant farmers. When the owner sent men to collect his share of the crop, they were all killed, including the owner's son. Jesus said that the owner would come and kill these farmers and lease the vineyard to others. The Jewish leaders knew He was pointing to them as the wicked farmers in this story.
Jesus performed many healings and miracles. Summaries include:
- Disciples in a terrible storm with high waves -- winds quieted, calmed (Mark 4:35-41)
- Woman with 12-year hemorrhage -- healed by touching His clothes (Mark 5:24-34)
- Feeding 5000 men with five loaves and two fish, with 12 basketfuls left over (Mark 6:3544)
- Walking on the water, calming the wind and waves (Mark 6:46-52)
- Demon-removal from the daughter of a Gentile (Mark 7:25-30)
- Feeding 4000 people with seven loaves of bread and a few small fish, with 7 basketfuls left over (Mark 8:1-9)
- Bartimaeus, blind beggar -- sight restored (Mark 10:46-52)
Jesus had many other main points, some including:
- "...all the sins and blasphemies of men will be forgiven them. But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of an eternal sin." (Mark 3:2829)
- "Whoever does God's will is My brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)
- On His home town (Nazareth): "Only in his hometown, among his relatives and in his own house is a prophet without honor." (Mark 6:4)
- On a rich person getting into heaven (Mark 10:17-27), Jesus said: "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." (Mark 10:25) And yet, He also said, "...all things are possible with God." (Mark 10: 27)
- “Watch out for the teachers of the law (i.e., of religion). They like to walk around in flowing robes and be greeted in the marketplaces, and have the most important seats in the synagogues...for a show make lengthy prayers..." (Mark 12:38-40)
Jesus' disagreements with the Pharisees and Sadducees were further told:
- Pharisees question not following the ritual washing ceremony before eating. Jesus answer: "Nothing outside a man can make him 'unclean' by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:15-16) "All these evils come from inside and make a man 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:23)
- Pharisees question on divorce (Mark 10:2-12). Jesus answer: "...Anyone who divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against her. And if she divorces her husband and marries another man, she commits adultery." (Mark 10:11-12)
Jesus' interactions with his disciples were described:
- Jesus asked His disciples, "Who do people say I am?" They responded that some say John the Baptist, others say Elijah back to life. Jesus said, "Who do you say I am?" Peter (Simon Peter) responded, "You are the Christ (i.e., the Messiah; the Anointed One)." (Mark 8:27-30)
- To His disciples and the crowds, He said, "If anyone would come after Me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow Me. For whoever wants to save his life (or soul) will lose it, but whoever loses his life for Me and for the gospel will save it. What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?" (Mark 8:34-36)
- To Peter, James, and John on a mountain top, Jesus transfigured to white, dazzling; and Elijah and Moses appeared along with a Voice saying "This is My Son, Whom I love. Listen to Him." (Mark 9:2-10)
- In response to questions from them on Elijah needing to return before the Messiah, Jesus said that he had already come and had been abused (implied), possibly indicating that John the Baptist could have been Elijah. (Mark 9:11-13)
- He said to them, "If anyone wants to be first, he must be the very last, and the servant of all." And, "Whoever welcomes one of these little children in My name welcomes Me; and whoever welcomes Me does not welcome Me but the One who sent Me." (Mark 9:35-37)
When the disciples told children to go away from Jesus, He said to them, "Let the little children come to Me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these ...anyone who will not receive the kingdom of God like a little child will never enter it." (Mark 10:13-15)
- James and John wanted to "sit at Your right and ...at Your left in Your glory." Jesus told them "These places belong to those for whom they have been prepared," and also said that whoever wants "to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all." (Mark10:35-45)
- On Temple offerings, Jesus watched a poor widow put in two small copper coins. Jesus said to the disciples, "...this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others. They all gave out of their wealth; but she, out of her poverty, put in everything -- all she had to live on." (Mark 12:41-44)
Concerning signs of the "End of the Age," Jesus told the disciples, "And the gospel must first be preached to all nations." (Mark 13:10) And, "...following that distress (i.e., at the end times), 'the sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.'" (Mark 13:24-25) Then, the angels will be sent out "to gather His elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens." (Mark 13:27) "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will never pass away." (Mark 13:31)
Jesus in Jerusalem (Mark 11):
Jesus rode a colt that had never been ridden and was praised by crowds of people as He rode into
Jerusalem to shouts of "Hosanna! Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David! Hosanna in the highest!" In Jerusalem, Jesus drove out the buyers, sellers, and moneychangers, saying "My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations..."
Jesus’ Passover Supper (The Lord’s Supper) in Jerusalem (Mark 14):
With the twelve disciples, in a large upper room, Jesus said that one of His disciples would betray Him. Then, Jesus took bread, and said, "Take it -- this is My body." And, a cup of wine was passed to all of them, with Jesus saying, "This is My blood of the covenant (i.e., the new agreement of God and man), which is poured out for many..." (Mark 14:22-24). After the supper, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus told them that, after He was raised to life again, He would go to Galilee and meet them. Also, after the supper, Jesus said that Peter would deny Jesus three times before the rooster crowed the second time in the morning; Peter said that would not happen.
Jesus’ ’’Trial” (Mark 14:15):
In Gethsemane, at night, Jesus asked God, if possible, to "Take this cup from Me." In the morning, Judas greeted Jesus, and an armed crowd took Jesus to meet the Sanhedrin (Jewish Supreme Court). The high priest asked Him, "Are you the Christ (or Messiah)...?" and Jesus answered, "I am..." They voted for the death sentence. Peter denied knowing Jesus three times before the rooster crowed the second time that morning. Jesus was carried to Pilate, the Roman governor, who asked Jesus, "Are You the King of the Jews?" Jesus said, "Yes, it is as you say." Pilate offered to release Jesus or Barabbas (a murderer), with the crowd to decide. The crowd, urged by the Jewish priests, asked to free Barabbas and to crucify Jesus. Roman soldiers mocked Jesus, dressed Him in a purple robe, gave Him a crown of thorns, beat Him, and then led Him to be crucified.
The Crucifixion of Jesus (Mark 15):
Jesus' cross was carried by Simon, a man from Cyrene, to Golgotha (meaning "The Place of the Skull"). Jesus was offered wine drugged with myrrh, which He refused. The crucifixion took place at "the third hour," with a written notice of His charge, reading "THE KING OF THE JEWS."
Two robbers were crucified, with crosses on either side of His cross. After three hours on the cross, darkness occurred for three hours, at which point Jesus said "Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabachthani?" (Aramaic, meaning "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"); then Jesus "breathed His last." The curtain in the Temple tore in two (this signifying access to God now by man).
Joseph, a man from Arimathea, asked Pilate for Jesus' body, took Jesus' body down from the cross, put it in a long linen cloth and laid it in a tomb cut out of rock, and rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb.
The Resurrection of Jesus (Mark 16):
The next evening, Mary Magdalene, another Mary, and Salome bought spices to "anoint" the body of Jesus. The following morning, at sunrise, they went to the tomb and saw a young man in a white robe (i.e., the angel of the Lord), who told them that Jesus was not there, that He had "risen" (come back to life) and was going to Galilee. Mary Magdalene saw Him that Sunday morning, and she told His disciples, who did not believe her. Later, as Jesus appeared to the eleven remaining disciples, He said, "Go into all the world and preach the good news to all creation. Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned." (Mark 16:15-16) And, Jesus said that believers could drive out demons, speak in new tongues (i.e., new languages), handle snakes, drink poison, and heal sick people. Then, Jesus was "...taken up into heaven, and He sat at the right hand of God." (Mark 16:19)
This is stated to be an "orderly account" (i.e., summary) of "the things that have been fulfilled" (i.e., Jesus Christ’s story). It begins telling of the angel Gabriel (Luke 1) first appearing with "good news" to Zechariah telling him of his wife Elizabeth to have a son (to be called John -John the Baptist) that will precede the coming of the Messiah. Then, the angel Gabriel goes, a month later, to Nazareth (a village in Galilee) to speak to the "Virgin Mary" (who was engaged to be married to Joseph -- a descendent of King David) -- telling her that she will give birth to a son to be called Jesus, who "will reign over the house of Jacob (i.e., Israel) forever; His kingdom will never end." (Luke 1:33) Mary was told that the "Holy Spirit" will let the baby be born "the Son of God" (Luke 1:35). Mary's relative (aunt) was Elizabeth, who was to be the mother of John the Baptist. The rest of the story of Jesus' birth is told, with Joseph going to Bethlehem to register for the census (decreed by Caesar Augustus, the Roman Emperor) when the Baby Jesus was born, wrapped in cloths, and placed in a manger, since there was no room in the inn. (Luke 2:7) Shepherds in a field saw an angel, telling them that "Today in the town of David (i.e., Bethlehem) a Savior has been born to you; He is Christ (or Messiah) the Lord." The shepherds went to the manger in Bethlehem and saw the Child. In Nazareth, Jesus "grew and became strong..."
Jesus at Twelve (Luke 2:41-52): Going to Jerusalem for Passover, Jesus stayed for three days after His parents left. They found Him in the Temple courts -- sitting among the teachers and amazing them. Jesus said to His parents, "Didn't you know I had to be in My Father's House?" (Luke 2:49)
The lineage of Joseph (Jesus' earthly "father") was traced all the way back to Adam (Luke 3:2338). Jesus was stated to be "about thirty years old when He began His ministry." Jesus' baptism and temptation by the devil in the desert for forty days was followed by His preaching at Nazareth --where He was rejected. So He preached at Capernaum every Sabbath (Saturday) and at other synagogues throughout Judea.
Well-known stories of and by Jesus include:
- Fish Netting: Jesus told Simon (Peter) to cast his net in a special place leading to an overflowing catch (Luke 5:1-9), after which Jesus said that from now on "you will catch men." (Luke 5:10)
- Caring Woman: A prostitute poured perfume on Jesus' feet and wiped them off with her hair, whereas His Pharisee host did not offer courtesies. Jesus told her, "Your faith has saved you; go in peace." (Luke 7:36-50)
- Good Samaritan A Jewish man attacked by bandits was not helped by a priest or a temple assistant, but a Samaritan (despised by Jews) aided and cared for the man (Luke 10:30-37) -- showing that one should "Love your neighbor as yourself." (Luke 10:27)
Lost Sheep: Even with 100 sheep, the shepherd will look for the one that is lost until it is found -- so "there will be more rejoicing in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who do not need to repent." (Luke 15:3-7)
- Prodigal Son: A man's son takes his inheritance, goes far away and loses it; then the son returns to a happy greeting from his father and resentment from his brother. The father's response: "...he was lost and is found!" (Luke 15:11-32)
- Ten Lepers: Jesus healed ten lepers, and only one came back to thank Him -- a Samaritan. Jesus said, "...your faith has made you well." This showed that many do not appreciate great gifts. (Luke 17:11-19)
Rich Man: A rich man had obeyed the laws, yet Jesus said he should give everything to the poor and follow Him. When the man left, Jesus said: "...it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." Then Jesus said that for anyone to be saved is only possible because "What is impossible with men is possible with God." (Luke 18:18-27)
Zacchaeus: A despised tax collector, Zacchaeus (a very short man) climbed into a sycamore-fig tree to watch Jesus, who later went to Zacchaeus' house. Zacchaeus became changed. (Luke 19:1-10)
Jesus spoke of the Kingdom of Heaven, or the Kingdom of God:
- "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. Blessed are you who hunger...are you who weep ...because great is your reward in heaven..." (Luke 6:20-23)
- "Sell your possessions and give to the poor. Provide purses for yourselves...in heaven ...where no thief comes near..." (Luke 12:33)
- "It is like a mustard seed...grew and became a tree...like yeast ...mixed into a large amount of flour..." (Luke 13:19-21)
- Responding to the Pharisees questioning when the kingdom of God will begin, Jesus said, "...because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21)
Jesus had many story-illustrations for people of his time. Examples:
- FARMER SOWING GRAIN (Luke 8:5-15): Farmer sowed seed onto the poor and fertile soil. The seed (God's message) in poor soil (hard hearts) did not grow; in fertile soil (good people) the seed did grow (they believed and spread the Word).
PERSISTENCE PAYS #1 (Luke 11:5-10): To borrow bread late at night, if you keep knocking, you will get it. Likewise, with prayer, "...Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened."
RICH ON EARTH, NOT HEAVEN (Luke 12:16-21): Storing away crops for the earthly life fills barns...but then you die. So, one should not be concerned with riches on earth and not be "rich toward God."
MANY INVITATIONS (Luke 14:16-24): A man had invited many to a great feast, and nobody showed up. Then, he invited anyone, and his house became full -- implying that Jews were invited first by Jesus, then everyone in the world.
TEN COINS (Luke 15:8-10): Happiness occurs when one lost coin (out of ten) is found; angels rejoice similarly when a sinner repents.
DISHONEST ACCOUNTANT (Luke 16:1-13): The accountant cleverly regains the admiration of his employer, yet his honesty was still in question. "You cannot serve both God and money."
RICH MAN - BEGGAR MAN (Luke 16:19-31): A rich man would not aid a beggar. Both died, with the rich going to hell (or Hades) and then asking for help from the beggar, who was in heaven. There was no way for one to cross from heaven to hell.
PERSISTENCE PAYS #2 (Luke 18:1-8): An evil judge was bothered by a woman who asked for justice until finally the judge helped her. God will also answer the persistent.
PHARISEE - TAX COLLECTOR (Luke 18:9-14): A Pharisee and a (despised) tax collector both prayed, with only the tax collector being truly sincere, so the tax collector was forgiven. "For everyone who exalts (i.e. elevates; praises) himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted."
NOBLEMAN'S INVESTMENTS (Luke 19:12-27): Ten men were given equal money to invest by the nobleman: those who earned the most were rewarded.
LEASED VINEYARD (Luke 20:9-18): A man's vineyard was rented to farmers who refused to pay him his share of the crop and killed his messengers and his son. The owner, Jesus said, would kill them and rent the vineyard to others. Jesus then added, "The Stone the builders rejected has become the Capstone... " -- with all this implying that Jesus and His ministry were to be rejected by the Jews/Pharisees and thus would be passed on to others.
Jesus performed many healings and miracles, summarized here:
- Man with advanced leprosy cured (Luke 5:12-14)
- Paralyzed man on sleeping mat, lowered from the roof -- healed (Luke 5:18-25)
- Cured deformed hand on Sabbath, enraging the Pharisees (Luke 6:6-11)
- Cast out many demons; healed everyone who touched Him (Luke 6:18-19)
- Slave of Roman captain (Gentile) -- healed (Luke 7:2-10)
- The only son of widow -- brought back to life from funeral procession (Luke 7:11-15)
- Storm threatening disciples and Jesus -- calmed (Luke8:22-25)
- Demon-possessed man in cemetery -- demons sent to pigs that drowned (Luke 8:27-39)
- Dead twelve-year-old daughter of Jewish synagogue leader -- life returned (Luke 8:41-56)
- Woman with long-term bleeding -- healed by touching Jesus' clothes (Luke 8: 43-48)
- Feeding 5000 people with five loaves of bread and two fish, with 12 basketfuls left over (Luke 8:12-17)
- Only son with a demon -- healed (Luke 9:37-42)
- The woman bent double for 18 years -- healed on Sabbath (Luke 13:10-17)
- A blind man near Jericho -- healed (Luke 18:35-43)
Jesus had many other main points, some including:
- "But I will show you whom you should fear: fear Him who, after the killing of the body, has the power to throw you into hell." (Luke 12:5)
- "And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man (i.e., Jesus) will be forgiven, but anyone who blasphemes (speaks profanely/irreverently) against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven." (Luke 12:10)
- "You also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect Him." (Luke 12:40)
- Referring to heaven: "Make every effort to enter through the narrow door, because many...will try to enter and will not be able to ...Indeed there are those who are last (probably referring to the poor people on earth) who will be first (in heaven), and first (probably referring to the rich/important people) who will be last." (Luke 13:24-30)
- "And anyone who does not carry his cross and follow Me cannot be My disciple." (Luke 14:27)
- "...any of you who does not give up everything he has cannot be My disciple." (Luke 14:33)
- "Anyone who divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery, and the man who marries a divorced woman commits adultery." (Luke 16:18)
- "If you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can say to this mulberry tree, 'Be uprooted and planted in the sea,' and it will obey you." (Luke 17:6)
- "Beware of the teachers of the law (i.e., religious leaders)...in flowing robes...love... places of honor...and for a show make lengthy prayers..." (Luke 20:46-47)
Jesus' disagreements with the Pharisees and Sadducees were further told:
- Pharisees question on why Jesus ate with sinners and tax collectors. Jesus answer: "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick." (Luke 5:31)
- Pharisees question on Jesus' breaking the heads off wheat and eating grains (working) on the Sabbath (Jewish holy day, our Saturday). Jesus answer: "...David ...entered the house of God (i.e., the Temple), and taking the consecrated (i.e., sacred) bread ...ate." (Luke 6:2-4)
- Pharisees question on why Jesus did not perform ceremonial washing before eating. Jesus answer: "...you Pharisees clean the outside... but inside you are full of greed and wickedness." (Luke 11:39)
- Pharisees questioned: should Jews pay tax to Rome? Jesus answer: "...give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Luke 20:25)
Sadducees (nonbelievers in resurrection) questioned about a woman married seven times on earth: whose wife is she in heaven? Jesus answer: "The people of this age (i.e., people on earth) marry...But...in the resurrection from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage, and they can no longer die; for they are like the angels..." (Luke 20:34-36). Since Jesus considered their real question about resurrection itself, Jesus continued that when Moses called the Lord "the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob" it meant that those persons were alive, since God was their God: or, "to Him (i.e., God) all are alive." (Luke 20:37-38)
Jesus' interactions with his disciples were described:
- .Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you." (Luke 6:27-28)
- "If someone strikes you on one cheek, turn to him the other also...Do to others as you would have them do to you." (Luke 6:29;31)
- "Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn (i.e., criticize), and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and it will be given to you..." (Luke 6:37-38)
- To His disciples, He asked, "Who do you say I am?" Peter replied, "The Christ (i.e., Messiah) of God!" He strictly warned them not to tell this to anyone, saying, "The Son of Man must...be killed and on the third day be raised to life." (Luke 9:20-22)
- "For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for Me will save it." (Luke 9:24)
- To Peter, James, and John on a mountain top, Jesus became changed in appearance, becoming "as bright as a flash of lightning." A Voice said, "This is My Son, Whom I have chosen; listen to Him." (Luke 9:28-35)
- "Whoever welcomes this little child in My name welcomes Me; and whoever welcomes Me welcomes the One who sent Me. For he who is least among you all -- he is the greatest." (Luke 9:48)
- ".. .but he who rejects Me rejects Him who sent Me." (Luke 10:16)
- "All things have been committed to Me by My Father. No one knows who the Son is except the Father, and no one knows who the Father is except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him." (Luke 10:22)
- "Let the little children come to Me ...anyone who will not receive the kingdom of God like a little child will never enter it." (Luke 18:17)
- "For the Son of Man (i.e., Jesus) in His day will be like the lightning, which flashes and lights up the sky ...But first He must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation." (Luke 17:24-25)
- "It will be just like this on the day the Son of Man is revealed." (Luke 17:30)
- "...the time will come when not one stone will be left on another..." (Luke 21:6)
- "When you hear of wars and revolutions, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away...When you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near." (Luke 21:9-20)
- "There will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars...the heavenly bodies will be shaken...the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. When these things begin to take place...your redemption (i.e., rescue) is drawing near ...Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will never pass away...Be always on the watch..." (Luke 21:25-36)
Jesus in Jerusalem (Luke 19:28-48):
Jesus rode a colt, not yet broken for riding, into Jerusalem to shouts: "Blessed is the King who comes in the Name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!" (Luke 19:38) In Jerusalem, in the Temple, Jesus drove out those who were selling things.
Jesus’ Passover (The Last Supper) in Jerusalem (Luke 22):
With the twelve disciples, in a large upper room, Jesus observed the Passover supper. Jesus broke the bread, and gave it to them, saying "This is My body given for you; do this in remembrance of Me." And, the cup of wine was given to them, with Jesus saying, "This cup is the new covenant (i.e., new agreement) in My blood, which is poured out for you." Jesus said that one at the table would betray Him. Then, He told the disciples that "the greatest among you should be like... the one who serves..." and that they would "sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." Jesus told Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster crowed that day (the next morning). Going to the Mount of Olives He prayed, "Father, if You are willing, take this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done." Later, Judas came to kiss Him on the cheek and betrayed Him to a crowd who had come to take Him. Shortly thereafter, Simon Peter denied that he knew Jesus three times: then the rooster crowed that morning.
Jesus’ "Trial" (Luke 22:23):
Meeting the council of the chief priests and teachers, when they said, "Are You then the Son of God?," Jesus answered, "You are right in saying I am." They carried Jesus to Pilate, the Roman governor, and Jesus responded to the question, "Are You the king of the Jews?" with "Yes, it is as you say." Pilate referred Jesus to King Herod, who controlled Galilee. Later, Jesus was taken back to Pilate, who wanted to release Him, but eventually sentenced Him to die and released Barabbas, a prisoner/murderer.
The Crucifixion of Jesus (Luke 23):
Simon from Cyrene carried Jesus' cross to a place called the "Skull," where He was crucified with two criminals -- one on either side. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing." Soldiers gambled for His clothing, mocked Him, and offered Him wine vinegar. One criminal said "We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this Man has done nothing wrong." Then, that criminal said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into Your Kingdom," and Jesus replied, "...today you will be with Me in Paradise." Darkness occurred for three hours; the curtain of the Temple was torn in two (showing that God was then accessible to all), and then Jesus called out with a loud voice, "Father, into Your Hands I commit My Spirit" and "breathed His last." Joseph, a Jewish Council (Supreme Court) member from Arimathea, asked Pilate for Jesus' body, took Jesus' body down from the cross, wrapped it in linen cloth, and (on Friday) placed it in a new tomb cut into rock. The Sabbath (Saturday, Jewish holy day), everyone rested.
The Resurrection of Jesus (Luke 24):
Early on Sunday, Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary (mother of James) and other women took spices to the tomb, found the stone (entrance covering) rolled away, and saw two gleaming men (i.e., angels), who said "He is not here; He has risen!" The women told the disciples and others of this, and Peter ran to the tomb, seeing the strips of linen (wrappings). Jesus appeared to two followers that Sunday but they did not recognize Him at first; when they did recognize Him, He disappeared. Jesus then appeared to Peter, then to the eleven disciples -- showing them His hands and feet and body, saying that He was not a ghost. Jesus instructed them:
• "...repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in His name to all nations."
Then, in the vicinity of Bethany, Jesus rose up into the sky to heaven. (Luke 24:50)
This book begins with: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."(John 1:1; from King James’ Version) God sent John the Baptist to witness Jesus Christ being the true "Light," yet among the Jews, He was not accepted. "Yet to all who received Him, to those who believed in His Name, He gave the right to become children of God -children born not of natural descent (i.e., not a physical birth) ...but born of God." (John 1:12-13) And, Christ became a human, living on earth. John the Baptist said, "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29) John the Baptist also said, "He Who will baptize with the Holy Spirit...is the Son of God" (John 1:33-34) and further said, "Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God's wrath remains on him." (John 3:36)
Well-known stories of and by Jesus include:
- Miracle at Cana in Galilee (John 2): This was the first public demonstration of Jesus' heaven-sent power. The water in six 20-30 gallon pots was turned into wine -- at a wedding celebration, at the request of His mother Mary.
- Nicodemus’ Discussion (John 3): A Pharisee, Nicodemus, discussed religion with Jesus and was told "...no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." In the further discussion is a most-quoted portion: John 3:16 -- (from King James’ Version) :
"For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever
believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life."
- The woman at the Well (John 4): A (despised) Samaritan woman at Jacob's well was approached by Jesus, who explained "living water" to her: "...the water I give...will become... a spring of water welling up to eternal life." (John 4:14) The woman led many to Jesus.
Bread of Life (John 6:25-59): In Capernaum, Jesus explained, "...I am the Bread of Life." (John 6:35;6:48) And, He explained that the Bread from heaven gives eternal life to everyone who eats it. (John 6:48-51).
- Born Blind (John 9): Asked if a man blind from birth was that way because of his or his parents' sins, Jesus said that it was neither. Jesus healed the man on the Sabbath. The man said, "...I was blind but now I see!" (John 9:25) Jesus said, "For judgment I have come into this world, so that the blind (i.e., the spiritually ignorant) will see and those who see (i.e., those who think they have spiritual knowledge) will become blind (i.e., will not recognize Jesus)." (John 9:39)
Lazarus Raised from Dead (John 11): Lazarus, dead for four days, was buried in a cave with a heavy stone rolled across its door. Jesus told his sister Martha, "I am the Resurrection and the Life. He who believes in Me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in Me will never die..." (John 11:25) At the tomb, the heavy stone was rolled aside and Jesus shouted, "Lazarus, come out!" And, Lazarus came. (John 11:43-44)
Jesus had many story-illustrations for people of his time. An example: Gate for the Sheep (John 10:1-16): Shepherd, gatekeeper, and sheep were used as an illustration, after which Jesus explained: "...I am the Gate for the sheep ...whoever enters through Me will be saved...will go in and out, and find pasture." (John 10:7-9) Then Jesus said, "I am the Good Shepherd...lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:11) Further, Jesus said, "My sheep listen to My voice; I know them, and they follow Me. I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish..." (John 10:27-28)
Jesus performed many healings and miracles, other than those mentioned above -summarized here:
- Jesus' second miracle in Galilee (first was wine from water in Cana): Royal official's son, near death -- healed (John 4:46-54)
- In Jerusalem, at the pool, man sick for 38 years -- healed on Sabbath (John 5:1-15)
- Feeding of 5000 people with five barley loaves and a couple of fish, with 12 baskets of food left over (John 6:1-13)
- Disciples on rough seas -- Jesus walked on the water to the boat and made it arrive safely (John 6:16-21)
Jesus had many other main points, some including:
- "...whoever hears My Word and believes Him who sent Me has eternal life and will not be condemned; he has crossed over from death to life." (John 5:24)
- "...the very work that the Father has given Me to finish, and which I am doing, testifies that the Father has sent Me." (John 5:36)
- "Whoever believes in Me ...streams of living water will flow from within him." (John 7:38)
- "I am the Light of the world. Whoever follows Me will never walk in darkness, but will have the Light of life." (John 8:12)
- "...You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world. I told you that you would die in your sins; if you do not believe that I am the one I claim to be (i.e., the Messiah), you will indeed die in your sins." (John 8:23-24)
- "If you hold to My teaching, you are really My disciples. Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free ." (John 8:31-32)
- "...everyone who sins is a slave to sin...if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed." (John 8:34-36)
- "...if anyone keeps My word, he will never see death." (John 8:51)
- "...before Abraham was born, I am! (i.e., was existing)" (John 8:58)
- "...believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father." (John 10:38)
- "I have come into the world as a Light, so that no one who believes in Me should stay in darkness ...There is a judge for the one who rejects Me...that very Word which I spoke will condemn (i.e., doom) him at the last day (i.e., Judgment Day)." (John 12:46;48)
Another disagreement with the Pharisees was told:
• Cast the First Stone:
o Pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery, saying Moses' law said to kill her by throwing stones at her: what do You say? Jesus answer: "...If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her." (John 8:7) And, the woman was not harmed.
Jesus' interactions with his disciples at the Last Supper were described:
- "...I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by Me." (John 14:6, from King James' Version)
- "...Anyone who has seen Me has seen the Father ...I am in the Father and... the Father is in Me ...words I say are not just My own...it is the Father, living in Me, who is doing His work." (John 14:9-10)
- "And I will do whatever you ask in My name, so that the Son may bring glory to the Father. You may ask Me for anything in My name, and I will do it." (John 14:13-14)
- "Remain in Me, and I will remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. I am the Vine; you are the branches..." (John 15:4-5)
- "This is My commandment, that ye love one another, as I have loved you. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." (John 15:12-13, from King James' Version)
- "...the Father will give you whatever you ask in My name." (John 15:16)
- "When the Counselor (i.e., the Holy Spirit) comes, whom I will send to you from the Father ...Truth... He will testify about Me." (John 15:26)
- "...in regard to sin, because men do not believe in Me..." (John 16:9)
- "...in My Name...Ask and you will receive, and your joy will be complete." (John 16:24)
- "Now this is eternal life: that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, Whom You have sent." (John 17:3)
With implications for the future yet to come, Jesus talked about the events that would signal the "end of the age" (or the world) and His return:
• "...a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear His voice and come out -
those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned." (John 5:28-29)
Jesus’ Passover (Last) Supper and Capture in Jerusalem (John 13): Jesus individually washed the disciples' feet and said, "...do as I have done for you...no servant is greater than his master..." (John 13: 15-16) Jesus further said, "...whoever accepts Me accepts the One who sent Me." (John 13:20) Jesus told Simon Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster would crow the next morning.
After the supper, at the olive grove, Judas arrived with officials and soldiers. Simon Peter slashed off the ear of a servant of the high priest. Peter denied that he knew Jesus three times, and then the rooster crowed that morning.
Jesus’ "Trial" and Crucifixion (John 18,19):
Meeting with Pilate, the Roman governor, Jesus said that He was not an earthly king and that He came to bring "the truth" to the world. Pilate said that he had no basis to charge Jesus and tried to release Jesus but eventually gave Jesus to the Jews to be crucified at Golgotha (meaning the place of the "Skull").
Jesus was crucified with two others, one on each side. A sign was posted over Jesus: "JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS" in Aramaic (Hebrew), Latin, and Greek. When Jesus said, "I'm thirsty," a sponge with wine vinegar was lifted to Him. Later a soldier pierced His side with a spear, with blood/water flowing out. Joseph of Arimathea requested Jesus' body and, with Nicodemus, took Jesus' body down and wrapped it in strips of linen with myrrh and aloes as spices. Jesus' body was placed in a new tomb (at a garden at the place where Jesus was crucified) just before the Sabbath (Saturday, Jewish holy day).
The Resurrection of Jesus (John 20):
Early Sunday morning, while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene found the stone covering removed from the entrance to the tomb. She ran and told Simon Peter and another disciple. Returning to the tomb, they saw only the strips of linen and the cloth that had been around Jesus' head. Mary returned again to the tomb and saw two angels and also Jesus, who first appeared as a Gardener to her before she recognized Him. Jesus, that evening, appeared to the disciples. The disciple Thomas was not with the others and, when he heard of Jesus' appearance, Thomas said, "...Except I shall see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe." (John 20:25, from King James’ Version). A week later, Jesus appeared while Thomas was there and said to Thomas, "...Reach hither thy finger, and behold My hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into My side; and be not faithless, but believing." (John 20:27, from King James’ Version). Thomas said, "...My Lord and my God!" (John 20:28) Jesus told Thomas: "...Thomas, because thou hast seen Me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed." (John 20:29, from King James’ Version)
Thomas has been labeled ever since as "Doubting Thomas.
Jesus appeared to the disciples on the Sea of Tiberias (or Sea of Galilee) and told them where to cast the nets, allowing them to get a full catch (153 large fish). Then, Jesus instructed Peter (Simon Peter) to "...Take care of My sheep." (John 21:16).
This book, by the same writer as the book of Luke, tells what happened after Jesus' crucifixion -Jesus appearances to the apostles (disciples) for forty days after the crucifixion. Then, Jesus rose into the sky into a cloud.
Another disciple, Matthias, was chosen to replace Judas Iscariot (who had betrayed Jesus and then killed himself), so that the disciples/apostles were again twelve.
In Acts, there was mention of a soul (i.e., Jesus) being in hell until the resurrection (Acts 2:27-31, from King James’ Version). The disciple, Simon Peter (or, just Peter) healed a crippled beggar. The Sadducees (who disbelieved in resurrection of the dead) were upset over the disciples Peter and John telling of Jesus' rising from the dead. The disciples kept speaking of Jesus as the Messiah and as the "the stone you builders rejected, which has become the capstone," saying further that "Salvation is found in no one else..." (Acts 4:11-12) The disciples/apostles were arrested and put in jail often, yet they preached on -- once released from jail by an angel (Acts 5:19).
Administrators (i.e., deacons) were picked for handling many of the duties of the church, so that the disciples could spend their time preaching.
Stephen Stoned to Death (Acts 7):
Stephen, a believer in Jesus, was brought to the high priest and spoke to the Jewish leaders, saying that "...I see...the Son of Man (i.e., Jesus the Messiah) standing at the right hand of God." Stephen was stoned to death and martyred (died, arousing sympathy to his beliefs).
As Peter and John preached, a Roman citizen and Jew named Saul (or Paul) of Tarsus was persecuting all believers in Jesus, until near Damascus, when the voice of Jesus spoke to Paul and blinded him for three days, after which Ananias (a Damascus believer in Jesus instructed to heal Paul) touched Paul to give him his sight back. Paul then became a believer in Jesus, was baptized and preached that Jesus was the Christ (i.e., the Messiah; Son of God). (Acts 9)
Peter healed a man bedridden for 8 years and then brought a dead woman (Dorcas) back to life (Acts 9:32-42). Then Peter had a vision that showed him that people other than Jews are valued by God. (Acts 10:9-15; 34-35) So, the early church then came to the thought, "...God has granted even the Gentiles repentance unto life." (Acts 11:18)
Barnabas and Paul at Tarsus (at Antioch) preached to the people -- there first called "Christians." (Acts 11:26) The apostle James was killed; Peter was arrested but rescued by an angel, who unchained him. (Acts 12:6-10)
Paul and Barnabas preached to many that both Jews and Gentiles could accept Jesus. In Jerusalem, Peter said that Gentiles were welcome and that they did not have to obey Jewish laws (circumcision was not required), except that they should abstain from eating meat sacrificed to idols, from eating unbled meat from strangled animals, and from fornication (having sex outside of marriage). (Acts 15) Paul then preached with Silas, Timothy, and others in many places, often in Greece -- at Corinth.
There were many riots and attacks on Paul by jealous Jewish leaders wherever he went. At Philippi, Paul and Silas were beaten and jailed, then released from prison by an earthquake that caused their chains to fall off, after which the jailer was baptized. (Acts 16:22-33) Paul healed a young man after a fatal fall during a sermon in Troas (in Turkey) (Acts 20:7-12). Paul went back to Jerusalem and told the people again of his experience on the road nearing Damascus (Acts 22:616). Paul was arrested and was charged by Ananias (the Jerusalem High Priest) as worthy of execution. (Acts 21-28) Paul would have been set free (Acts 26:32), but he "appealed to Caesar" (being a Roman citizen) -- requiring that he be sent to Rome for trial. Paul's trip to Rome was detailed, with an account of his being bitten by a poisonous snake without effect. (Acts 28:3-6)
In this book, a letter from Paul to the early church in Rome, are many of the essential points of the New Testament. Paul tells the Good News about Jesus Christ being the Son of God, with the Holy nature of God Himself, saying that everyone (not Jews alone, but Gentiles [non-Jews] also) with faith and trust in Christ was doing right and was ready for heaven. Paul said that nobody was good enough to keep His laws, yet we are "justified freely by His grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus" (i.e., declared innocent because of Jesus taking away our sins): Paul stated that Christ's blood and our faith will save us:
- "For we maintain that a man is justified (i.e., saved) by faith (implied that this is faith in Jesus Christ) apart from observing the law (i.e., following the Ten Commandments)." (Romans 3:28)
- "He (i.e., Jesus) was delivered over to death (i.e., died) for our sins and was raised to life (i.e., rose) for our justification (i.e., to declare us free from blame or guilt; to pardon us)." (Romans 4:24-25)
Paul contrasted Adam as the first man, bringing death to the world through sin, with Jesus Christ as one Man bringing forgiveness to many through God's mercy, with Christ freely taking away many sins and His righteousness making men right with God. (Romans 5:12-19)
Paul had many other main points that he preached, some including:
- "...just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." (Romans 5:21)
- "We (i.e., Christians) were therefore buried with Him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life." (Romans 6:4)
- "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." (Romans 6:23, from King James’ Version)
- "You...are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you." (Romans 8:9)
- "But if Christ is in you, your body is dead (or will die) because of sin, yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness." (Romans 8:10)
- "And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to His purpose." (Romans 8:28, from King James’ Version)
- "...If God is for us, who can be against us?" (Romans 8:31)
- "For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers, neither height or depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us (i.e., Christians) from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord." (Romans 8:38-39)
- "Consider therefore the kindness and sternness of God..." (Romans 11:22)
- "I am talking to you Gentiles (non-Jews)...I am the apostle to the Gentiles..." (Romans 11:13)
- "...How unsearchable His judgments...Who has known the Mind of the Lord?..." (Romans 11:33-34)
- "For from Him and through Him and to Him are all things. To Him be the glory forever! Amen..." (Romans 11:36)
- "We have different gifts, according to the grace given us...(i.e., different abilities given to us by God)." Paul instructs each person to do well in what he does best, saying further: "Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord (i.e., don't be lazy in your work)." And, further: "Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited." Paul said to be "careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody..." and "Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good." (Romans 12:6-21)
- "Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities (i.e., do what the government says), for there is no authority except that which God has established..." (Romans 13:1)
- "The commandments...are summed up in this one rule: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.' " (Romans 13:9)
- "...why do you judge your brother?...For we will all stand before God's judgment seat." (Romans 14:10)
- "...the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking...but it is wrong for a man to eat anything that causes someone else to stumble ...better not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause your brother to fall." (Romans 14:17-21)
- "...Christ has become a servant of the Jews...so that the Gentiles may glorify God for His mercy...." (Romans 15:8-9)
Paul also pointed out his belief in predestination, such as:
- "For those God foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of His Son...And those He predestined, He also called ...justified ...glorified." (Romans 8:29-30)
- Regarding God's blessing Jacob but not Esau, " ...before the twins were born...in order that God's purpose in election (i.e., predestining them) might stand ...Jacob I loved..." (Romans 9:10-13)
Paul told of the future events around his time (or even possibly yet to come now) of the "last days:"
"...Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. And so all Israel will be saved..." (Romans 11:25-26)
This book is a letter to the church at Corinth (Greece) where Paul instructs the members of this early group of Christians to stop arguing and tells them of his plan to send Timothy to help them further. Paul instructs the church members about a member who was living with his father's wife, saying that it was not his (or their) business to judge those "outside the church": yet it was their business inside the church -- the man should be expelled. (1 Corinthians 5) On marriage, Paul instructs the church that it is all right not to marry, but usually it is best to be married and that a wife must not leave her husband and the husband must not divorce his wife. If a husband dies, the wife could marry, only if she marries a man who "belongs to the Lord" (i.e., a Christian). (1 Corinthians 7) On the Jewish ceremony of circumcision, Paul told the church members that it makes no difference whether a Christian has gone through the ceremony. (1 Corinthians 7:18-19) On eating food that had been sacrificed to idols, Paul said the main problem was that you might influence someone who thinks it is wrong to still eat it (following your lead) -- and that when "...you sin against your brothers in this way and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ." (1 Corinthians 8)
On Communion (or Eucharist), Paul said that all who drink the cup of wine are sharing together the blessing of Christ's blood and that the bread shows sharing of the benefits of His body: "For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until He comes (i.e., returns)." (1 Corinthians 10:16-17; 11:23-26) On speaking in unknown tongues, Paul said that was all right, yet people should have an explanation also in ordinary language so that all the people will understand and be helped. (1 Corinthians 14:13-19) Advising the church, Paul said that women should be silent during the church meetings. (1 Corinthians 14:34-35)
In a detailed explanation of how will the dead arise again:
Dead to Life Questions - From the Seed Arises the Plant (1 Corinthians 15:35-58)
Paul told of our earthly bodies being replaced with a new body (like a green plant being very different from the seed first planted) -- a superhuman, spiritual, heavenly body that will never die. Paul further stated (1 Corinthians 15:50), "...flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God" and that, with the new heavenly bodies, "'Death has been swallowed up in victory."' (1 Corinthians 15:54)
Paul said that profound words and high sounding ideas were not used in his sermons in order to not dilute the simple message of the cross of Christ -- that Jesus died to save those who are lost.
Several of Paul's other points include
- "...the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God ...Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male prostitutes nor homosexual offenders nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God." (1 Corinthians 6:9-11)
- "'Food for the stomach and the stomach for food' -- but God will destroy them both..." (1 Corinthians 6:13)
- "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God." (1 Corinthians 10:31, from King James’ Version)
- Paul indicates that a man should not cover his head and a woman should have a head covering in church: "Every man...with his head covered dishonors his head. And every woman with her head uncovered dishonors her head..." (1 Corinthians 11:4-5)
"For we were all baptized by One Spirit into One Body -- whether Jews or Greeks, slave or free -- and we were all given the One Spirit to drink." (1 Corinthians 12:13)
- "If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing." (1 Corinthians 13:2)
- "When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things." (1 Corinthians 13:11, from King James’ Version)
- "And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love." (1
- "Do everything in love." (1 Corinthians 16:14)
Paul further pointed out his belief in predestination, such as:
- "but to those whom God has called (i.e., predestined), both Jews and Greeks (or Gentiles)..." (1 Corinthians 1:24)
- "...God's secret wisdom destined for our glory before time began." (1 Corinthians 2:7)
Paul told of the future events around his time (or even possibly yet to come now) of the "last days:"
- "Therefore you do not lack any spiritual gift as you eagerly wait for our Lord Jesus Christ to be revealed. He will keep you strong to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ (i.e., Judgment Day)." (1 Corinthians 1:7-8)
- "...the time is short...for this world in its present form is passing away." (1 Corinthians 7:29-31)
- "...warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages (i.e., the last days) has come." (1 Corinthians 10:11)
- "For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive...Then the end will come. The last enemy to be destroyed is death." (1 Corinthians 15:22-26)
- "...We will not all sleep (i.e., die), but we will all be changed (i.e., given heavenly bodies) - - in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet...the dead will be raised imperishable (i.e., living forever; not to die), and we will be changed ...imperishable..." (1 Corinthians 15:51-53)
This book covers an additional letter from Paul to the church at Corinth (Greece). Paul further pointed out that trying to be saved by keeping the Ten Commandments "ends in death," whereas (in the new way) the Holy Spirit gives life. (2 Corinthians 3:6) Paul said that Satan (the "god of this age") makes people blind to the Gospel. On death, Paul describes the heavenly dwelling where "we will be at home with the Lord" and where "we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body (i.e., here on earth), whether good or bad." (2 Corinthians 5:8-10)
Several of Paul's other points include
- "For Christ's love compels us, because we are convinced that ...He died for all, that those who live should no longer live for themselves but for Him who died for them and was raised again." (2 Corinthians5:14-15)
- "Therefore if anyone is in Christ (i.e., becomes a Christian), he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come!" (2 Corinthians 5:17)
- "Godly sorrow brings repentance that leads to salvation (i.e., sorrow could cause one to change his ways and be saved)..." (2 Corinthians 7:10)
This book is a letter from Paul to the churches of Galatia (now Turkey). Paul further pointed out his belief in predestination, with his comment that "...God...set me apart from birth and called me by His grace...to reveal His Son ...among the Gentiles..." (Galatians 1:15) Paul explains again that salvation cannot be earned by being circumcised and by obeying Jewish laws, but only by faith in Jesus Christ to take away our sins: acceptance with God comes by believing in Christ. (Galatians 2) The whole law (meaning Jewish law) can be summed up: "Love your neighbor as yourself." (Galatians 5:14) Paul said, "...the Spirit ...the sinful nature desires -- are in conflict with each other..." (Galatians 5:16-17)
Several of Paul's other points include:
- "Those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the sinful nature with its passions and desires." (Galatians 5:24)
- "...for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." (Galatians 6:7, from King James’ Version)
- "...the one who sows to please the Spirit, from the Spirit will reap eternal life." (Galatians 6:8)
This book is a letter from Paul to Christians at Ephesus. As previously, on predestination, Paul said, "For He chose us in Him before the creation of the world..." and "predestined us to be adopted as His sons through Jesus Christ...," and "having been predestined...in order that we ...might be for the praise of His glory." (Ephesians 1:4-5;and 1:11) And, on the future events around his time (or even possibly yet to come now) of the "last days” Paul spoke of God's purpose: "...when times have reached their fulfillment -- to bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one Head, even Christ." (Ephesians 1:10) Paul stated that salvation is not a reward for doing good and that Christ's death was to cancel the system of Jewish laws and to allow Gentiles to be a part of God's house. Paul referred to Christians as "children of light," and he advised, "always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ." (Ephesians 5:20) For husbands and wives, Paul said "...each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband." (Ephesians 5:33) For children, Paul instructs them to obey their parents, saying, "'Honor your father and mother' -- which is the first commandment with a promise -- 'that it may go well with you and that you may enjoy long
life on the earth.' " (Ephesians 6:2-3) For everyone, Paul said to always work hard, with gladness, "as if you were serving the Lord." Paul warned that Christians must always have the Lord's strength to "take your stand against the devil's schemes" and against the "powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms" as Christian soldiers with God's armor. (Ephesians 6:10-17; also 1 Thessalonians 5:8)
Several of Paul's other points include:
- "one Lord, one faith, one baptism;" (Ephesians 4:5)
- "...the Head... is ...Christ. From Him the whole body (i.e., the Church)...grows and builds itself up in love, as each part does its work." (Ephesians 4:15-16)
This book is a letter from Paul and Timothy to Christians in the city of Philippi, where they were advised to be loving to each other, to agree and work together, being humble, unselfish, and interested in others.
Several of Paul's other points include:
- "...I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord..." (Philippians 3:8)
- "I can do everything through Him who gives me strength." (Philippians 4:13)
Paul further told them of his being a pure-blooded Jew, of the Benjamin family, a Pharisee (with strict obedience to every Jewish law and custom) -- pointing out that nobody could count on being saved by being good enough or by obeying God's laws but by trusting Christ, since "not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law (i.e., obeying the Ten Commandments), but that which is through faith in Christ -- the righteousness that comes from God and is by faith." (Philippians 3:9)
This book is a letter from Paul and Timothy to Christians in the city of Colosse -- to the ones that will be "in the kingdom of light." Paul said that in their prayers (i.e., the apostles -- implying for these Christians to use this way also) they begin by thanking "God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." Implying that Christ existed before God made anything at all (was the "firstborn over all creation"), Paul continued, "He is the Head of the Body, the Church; He is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything He might have the supremacy." (Colossians 1:18) Further, "...through Him to reconcile (i.e., to settle or resolve) to Himself all things...by making peace through His blood, shed on the cross..."(Colossians 1:20)
Several of Paul's other points include:
- "...the glorious riches of this mystery, which is Christ in you (i.e., in your minds and hearts), the hope of glory." (Colossians 1:27)
- "and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority." (Colossians 2:10)
- "...buried with Him (i.e., Christ) in baptism and raised with Him through your faith in the Power of God who raised Him from the dead." (Colossians 2:12)
- "Set your minds on things above, not on earthly things...When Christ appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory." (Colossians 3:2-4)
- "Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach...and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude (i.e., thankfulness) in your hearts to God." (Colossians 3:16)
Paul also instructed them to forgive others, let love be your guide; husbands and wives should be loving; children, obeying; parents, minimizing scolding children; slaves, obeying masters; masters, being just and fair to slaves.
This book is a letter from Paul, Silas, and Timothy to the Church at Thessalonica (Greece), instructing them on the return of Jesus:
- "Make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, to mind your own business and to work with your hands..." (1 Thessalonians 4:11)
- "We believe that Jesus died and rose again (i.e., came back to life) and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep with Him (i.e., those Christians who have died)." (1 Thessalonians 4:14)
- "...the dead in Christ (i.e., dead Christians) will rise first ...After that, we who are still alive...will be caught up ...in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air...will be with the Lord forever." (1 Thessalonians 4:16-17)
- "Now, brothers, about times and dates we do not need to write you, for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night." (1 Thessalonians 5:1-2)
- "...sons of the light and sons of the day...do not belong to the night or to the darkness." (1 Thessalonians 5:5)
- "...He died for us so that, whether we are awake or asleep (i.e., alive or dead), we may live together with Him." (1 Thessalonians 5:10)
This book is a letter from Paul, Silas, and Timothy to the Church at Thessalonica (Greece), further describing Jesus' return and encouraging them to withstand the oppression for their beliefs:
- "...you are suffering. God is just: He will pay back trouble to those who trouble you and give relief...This will happen when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven in blazing fire with His powerful angels. He will punish those who do not know God and do not obey the Gospel of our Lord Jesus. They will be punished with everlasting destruction (i.e., hell) and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of His power." (2 Thessalonians 1:5-9)
- "...for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction." (2 Thessalonians 2:1-3) "The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with the work of Satan..." (2 Thessalonians 2:9)
Paul advised them not to be lazy and to work hard -- not just waiting around for the return of Jesus.
- "...command certain men not to teach false doctrines any longer nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies. These promote controversies..." (1 Timothy 1:4)
- "...God our Savior ...wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. For there is one God and one Mediator (i.e., the One in between that brings things together) between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ransom for all men ..."
(1 Timothy 2:3-5)
Paul defines the way Christian men and women should present themselves and the requirements for "an overseer" (bishop; pastor) and deacons (1 Timothy 2,3), also indicating the church's need to take care of widows.
Several of Paul's points on money and wealth:
- "For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out." (1 Timothy 6:7, from King James’ Version)
- "For the love of money is the root of all evil ..." (1 Timothy 6:10, from King James’ Version)
- "Command those who are rich in this present world not to be arrogant nor to put their hope in wealth, which is so uncertain, but ...in God ...Command them to do good, to be rich in good deeds, and to be generous and willing to share. In this way they will lay up treasure for themselves as a firm foundation for the coming age, so that they may take hold of the life that is truly life." (1 Timothy 6:17-19)
Paul instructed that all Christians who are slaves should work hard. (1 Timothy 6:1).
This book is another letter from Paul to Timothy , with further advice for his ministry. Paul expressed his predestination thoughts, saying that God "saved us and called us ...because of His own purpose ...before the beginning of time..." (2 Timothy 1:9) Paul pointed out that Jesus Christ was a Man, yet also was God (2 Timothy 2:8) Also, Paul told Timothy that Christians would have a difficult time "in the last days," with immorality and sin (2 Timothy 3:1-5). Since Paul felt that his own death was near, he said these words, often quoted at funerals:
• "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith." (2 Timothy 4:7, from King James’ Version)
This book is a letter from Paul to Titus, instructing him on the island of Crete to strengthen the church and on appointing pastors. Paul said that a person who is pure in heart sees goodness and purity in everything (Titus 1:15) and that salvation is now being offered to everyone (Titus 2:11). Other instructions included to obey the government, do honest work, be gentle and courteous.
This book is a letter from Paul and Timothy to Philemon , concerning a servant named Onesimus, who had run away from Philemon. Paul said that Onesimus had become a Christian and was now a "brother in the Lord" to Philemon. Thus, Paul asked that Onesimus be forgiven for his escape.
This book was written to strengthen the faith of the early Christians. Some of the main points are:
- "...He too shared in their humanity (i.e., was born as human) so that by His death He might destroy him who holds the power of death -- that is, the devil --" (Hebrews 2:14)
- "But Christ is faithful as a Son over God's house. And we (i.e., Christians) are His house..." (Hebrews 3:6)
- "Nothing in all creation is hidden from God's sight. Everything is laid bare before the eyes of Him to Whom we must give account." (Hebrews 4:13)
The book of Hebrews refers to Jesus as our "great High Priest," and illustrated that Christ was like Melchizedek (a priest who had blessed Abraham in early Jewish history) -- was not of the priest- tribe of Levi, yet was a priest of "God Most High." Further, it is stated that "because Jesus lives forever, He has a permanent Priesthood" and can "save completely those who come to God through Him, because He always lives to intercede (act between God and people, as a go-between) for them." (Hebrews 7:24-25)
Further important points from Hebrews:
- "...One who is holy, blameless, pure...does not need to offer sacrifices...He sacrificed for their sins once for all when He offered Himself (i.e., on the cross)." (Hebrews 7:26-27)
- "...He sets aside the first (i.e., the first agreement with Moses at Mt. Sinai) to establish the second (i.e., the second agreement)...we have been made holy (i.e., forgiven for sins) through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Hebrews 10:9-10)
- "If we deliberately keep on sinning after we have received the knowledge of the Truth, no sacrifice for sins is left, but only a fearful expectation of judgment and of raging fire that will consume the enemies of God." (Hebrews 10:26-27)
- "But we...are those who believe and are saved." (Hebrews 10:39)
- "Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever. " (Hebrews 13:8, from King James’ Version)
- "...an alter (i.e., Christ's cross)...Jesus suffered outside the city gate to make the people holy through His Own blood." (Hebrews 13:10-12)
Other advice: not to quarrel; to live a clean, holy life; to do good; to share with others.
This book was written as a letter to Jewish Christians, with advice to:
- "Consider it pure joy ...whenever you face trials ...because ...testing of your faith develops perseverance (i.e., persistence)." (James 1:2-3)
- "...Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry..." (James 1:19)
- ".. .those who are poor in the eyes of the world. ..to be rich in faith and to inherit the kingdom..." (James 2:5)
Other advice: take care of orphans and widows; help others; prove you have faith by doing good works; don't brag; do not swear. And, some further points:
- "...the tongue is a small part of the body, but it makes great boasts." (James 3:5)
- "There is only One Lawgiver and Judge, the One Who is able to save and destroy...who are you to judge your neighbor?" (James 4:12)
- "Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his ways shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins. " (James 5:20, from King James’ Version)
This book was written as a letter to Jewish Christians, telling them that sufferings are only to test your faith. Important points:
- "...In His great mercy He has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead..." (1 Peter 1:3)
- "...'All men are like grass...withers...but the Word of the Lord stands forever...'" (1 Peter 1:24)
- "...you are a chosen people ...called out of darkness into His wonderful Light." (1 Peter 2:9)
- Indicating where Christ was in the interval between His death and His resurrection, "...Christ...put to death in the flesh...went and preached unto the spirits in prison..." (1 Peter 3:18-19) And, further, "...for this cause was the Gospel preached also to them who are dead..." (1 Peter 4:6, from King James’ Version)
- "...'If it is hard for the righteous to be saved, what will become of the ungodly and the sinner?'" (1 Peter 4:18)
- "...'God opposes the proud (i.e., arrogant) but gives grace (i.e., favor and mercy) to the humble (i.e., not showy or vain).'" (1 Peter 5:5)
Stating that the world end was coming soon, other advice was to pray; show respect and love; fear God; honor government; find inner beauty; control your tongue.
This book, written as a letter to Christians by Simon Peter, tells them to enjoy other people and grow to love them; to beware of false prophets; to not be a slave to sin. There is a warning to not return to sin after becoming Christian, saying that such a person would be worse off than before (2 Peter 2:20), and warning of the old saying that a "dog returns to its vomit," and a "sow that is washed goes back to her wallowing in the mud." (2 Peter 2:22)
The judgment day is described:
- ".. .the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. But...With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day." (2 Peter 3:7-8)
- "But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare (i.e., burned up)." (2 Peter 3:10)
- "...the day of God... will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat." (2 Peter 3:12).
This book begins by stating that Christ was "from the beginning" and further states that "God is Light; in Him there is no darkness at all." Important points include:
- "...the blood of Jesus ...purifies us from all sin." (1 John 1:7)
- "If we claim we have not sinned, we make Him out to be a liar and His Word has no place in our lives." (1 John 1:10)
- "...if anybody does sin...One who speaks to the Father in our defense -- Jesus Christ...is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and...for the sins of the whole world." (1 John 2:1-2)
- "...your sins have been forgiven on account of His name (i.e., Jesus)." (1 John 2:12)
- "No one who is born of God (i.e., Christian) will continue to sin, because God's seed remains in him; he cannot go on sinning because he has been born of God." (1 John 3:9)
- "And this is His command: to believe in the name of His Son Jesus Christ, and to love one another ..." (1 John 3:23)
- "He that loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love. In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him. (1 John 4:8,9; from King James’ Version)
- "Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him and he in God." (1 John 4:15; from King James’ Version)
- "We love Him, because He first loved us." (1 John 4:19; from King James’ Version)
- "And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life." (1 John 5:11,12; from King James’ Version)
Other advice: love your fellow man; beware of false teachers like the "antichrist" that will come near the world end.
This book is a letter to a "chosen lady and her children." It advises that Christians should love one another and watch out for false teachers (such as those who don't believe that Jesus Christ was a human being with a real body).
This book is a letter to Gaius, a friend, advising him to do good, since "...Anyone who does what is good is from God" and "Anyone who does what is evil has not seen God." (3 John 1:11)
This book is a letter from Jude to Christians, warning them that, after becoming Christian, one cannot have a "license for immorality" (i.e., do whatever we want and have no fear of any punishment from God). Other advice:
- "Keep yourselves in God's love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you eternal life." (Jude 1:21)
- "Be merciful to those who doubt ...hating even the clothing stained by corrupted flesh." (Jude 1:23)
This book presents the vision of John regarding future events around his time (or even possibly yet to come now) of the "last days." The book is presented as a letter from "John" to the seven churches in what-is-today Turkey. John tells of a voice speaking to him while he was on the island of Patmos and worshipping on the "Lord's Day." John was told to write to each of the seven churches, and the letters are presented in this book -- each one evaluating the churches and telling them to become interested and excited about the church. (The Revelation 3:19) An "hour of trial...to test those who live on the earth" was indicated to be coming in the future. (The Revelation 3:10)
John then describes seeing a door to heaven open to allow him to see "what must take place after this (i.e., in the future)." (The Revelation 4:1) The "throne" of God is described (The Revelation 4) as:
- "A rainbow, resembling an emerald, encircled the throne."
- "Surrounding the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on them were twenty- four Elders."
- "From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder."
- "In the center, around the throne, were four Four Living Creatures, and they were covered with eyes, in front and in back. The first Living Creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle. Each of the Four Living Creatures had six wings and was covered with eyes all around, even under His wings."
- A scroll in God's right hand was sealed with seven seals. The Lamb was apparently Jesus Christ, but with "seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God" (The Revelation 5:6). The seals were broken by the Lamb, with the results (The Revelation 6-8):
- First seal: a rider of a WHITE horse was carrying a bow, was crowned, and rode out to war.
- Second seal: a rider of a RED horse was given a long sword to end peace and bring war to the earth.
- Third seal: a rider of a BLACK horse had a pair of scales in his hand.
- Fourth seal: a rider named DEATH was on a PALE horse and was followed by another horse with a rider named HADES (or hell): these riders were to kill a fourth of the earth.
- Fifth seal: an altar had (underneath it) the souls of those that had been killed because of the Word of God (i.e., martyrs, killed for preaching the Word of God). These souls were told to wait.
- Sixth seal: a great earthquake occurred; the sun turned black; the moon, blood red; stars appeared to fall to earth. People were afraid and wished to hide. The "seal on the foreheads" (i.e., the Seal of God) was placed on 144,000 -- on 12,000 from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. Also there was a multitude of people, in white robes, that came out of the "great tribulation" and "washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb" (i.e., were believers in Jesus Christ).
- Seventh seal: seven angels were given seven trumpets to blow.
The trumpets blowing had the following results, in sequence (The Revelation 8-10):
- First angel trumpet blow: hail and fire mixed with blood hurled upon the earth with one-third of the earth burned up.
- Second angel trumpet blow: huge burning mountain thrown into the sea with one-third of ships and sea-life destroyed and one-third of the sea turning to blood.
- Third angel trumpet blow: great blazing star fell from the sky onto a third of the rivers and springs, polluting one-third of the water on earth.
- Fourth angel trumpet blow: a third of the sun and moon and stars were darkened.
- Fifth angel trumpet blow: key to the "Abyss" (i.e., hell; bottomless pit) opened it: sun and sky were darkened; locusts with strange looks and scorpion's tails tortured people without the seal of God on their foreheads. The king of the locusts was the "angel of the Abyss" -named Abaddon (or Apollyon or Destroyer).
- Sixth angel trumpet blow: four angels (or possibly demons) with a large army and deadly horses (with their tails having heads like snakes) were released, killing one- third of mankind.
- Seventh angel trumpet blow: the world then belongs to the Lord and Christ forever.
- Before the seventh angel blew his trumpet, John was asked by a mighty angel (with right foot on the sea and left foot on the land) to eat the scroll telling of the things to happen (first tasting like honey, then souring his stomach) and yet to continue to prophesy further. John was told that the "holy city" (Jerusalem) would be trampled for "42 months," during which two prophets/witnesses would tell about God, then would be killed, and would rise to heaven after 3 1/2 days -- with an earthquake collapsing a tenth of the city. (The Revelation 11)
Jesus birth; threats by the "Red Dragon ...with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads " against Jesus; war in heaven with Michael and the angels fighting the Dragon (called the devil or Satan) and the Dragon being hurled onto the earth with his army; God's salvation and the authority of Christ. These things appear to be looking back, seeing that "They (meaning Christians or Christian martyrs) overcame him by the blood of the Lamb (i.e., Jesus Christ's dying on the cross) and by the word of their testimony; they did not love their lives so much as to shrink from death." (The Revelation 12)
John describes the vision of a "Beast coming out of the sea" (or Creature from the sea), with seven heads and ten horns, and ten crowns upon its horns: the Beast was given control of the earth for forty-two months, where all mankind (other than those written in the Lamb's Book of Life) worshipped him. Even another strange animal, with two lamb-like horns, came out of the earth (i.e., False Prophet) -- was described as doing unbelievable miracles and requiring all to have a "mark" on the right hand or on the forehead -- the name of the Beast or the number of his name -666. (The Revelation 13)
John then saw the Lamb on Mt. Zion in Jerusalem with the 144,000. One angel had the Gospel to proclaim to all those on earth; another said that Babylon (referring probably to Rome) is fallen; another said that worshippers of the Beast "will be tormented with burning sulfur...for ever and ever..." (The Revelation 14:10-11) Then, someone looking like Jesus with a sharp sickle began to "reap." The clusters of grapes that were ripe (apparently the ungodly -- ripe for judgment) were placed in a great winepress yielding a river of blood 180 miles long and high as a horse's bridle.
Then, John saw the "seven last plagues" that were assigned to seven angels to finish God's anger (The Revelation 15-16):
- First angel: ugly, painful sores were given to all with the mark of the Beast.
- Second angel: the seas turned to blood and died.
- Third angel: rivers and springs turned to blood.
- Fourth angel: the sun scorched people with its fire.
- Fifth angel: the kingdom of the Beast from the sea was made dark.
- Sixth angel: River Euphrates was dried up; and three evil spirits looking like frogs (Dragon, Beast, False Prophet) readied for battle on the "Judgment Day" at Armageddon (the mountain of Megiddo).
- Seventh angel: greatest of all earthquakes occurred; islands vanished; mountains flattened; 100-pound hailstones fell.
- John was introduced to the "Great Prostitute" with "Babylon the Great" written on her forehead, representing the great city (probably meaning Rome) that rules over the kings of the earth. She was said to be destined for consumption by fire, thrown totally away. (The Revelation 17-18)
Then John saw heaven again, where an angel said, "...Worship God! For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy ." (The Revelation 19:10) The armies of heaven prepared to meet the armies of the "Beast." The Beast and False Prophet were captured and thrown into the "fiery lake of burning sulfur." Their entire army was killed. The Dragon ("that ancient Serpent, who is the devil, or Satan") was bound and thrown into the Abyss for 1000 years, during which the "souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus..." came to life again and reigned with Christ -- the First Resurrection. After that 1000 years, Satan was free and gathered again ("with Gog and Magog") for battle, surrounding Jerusalem until fire from heaven devoured them. Once again, the devil (or Dragon) was thrown again into the lake of burning sulfur, where the Beast and False Prophet had been thrown also -- to be tormented forever. At that time (Second Resurrection), all dead people were judged: those whose names were NOT recorded in the Book of Life were thrown into the Lake of Fire, along with "Death and Hades (i.e., hell)."
This gave rise to "a new heaven and a new earth" (with no seas!), then "the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God..." (The Revelation 21:1,2) And, "...Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away." (The Revelation 21:3,4; from King James’ Version) Further,
- "...It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of the Water of Life." (The Revelation 21:6)
- "But ... cowardly ...unbelieving ...vile ...murderers ...sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts ...idolaters ...liars -- their place will be in the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death." (The Revelation 21:8)
- John was shown the holy New Jerusalem, with 12 gates (names of the 12 tribes of Israel written on them) guarded with 12 angels ; with 12 foundations with Jesus Christ's 12 apostles' names on them. The city was a cube, 1400 miles per side and high, with 200 ft. thick walls -- with the city itself described as "pure gold, as pure as glass" and having precious stones everywhere. The great (i.e., main) street was also "pure gold, like transparent glass." There was NO TEMPLE, since the Lord and Lamb are the Temple; no sun or moon since the Light is from God and the Lamb; gates never closing, and no night. Nothing impure can enter: those whose names are written in the Lamb's Book of Life are the only ones present. The River of the Water of Life and Trees of Life (with fruit each month) were described. There everyone worships God, with His name on their foreheads: they see His face. Everyone is repaid according to what he has done.
John is told that, until the new earth comes, "...Whoever is thirsty, let him come; and whoever wishes let him take the free gift of the Water of Life." (The Revelation 22:17)